LLM Monitoring: The Beginner’s Guide

Ensure your Large Language Model operates at peak efficiency with our definitive monitoring guide. Discover essential strategies, from proactive surveillance to ethical compliance, to keep your LLM secure, reliable, and ahead of the curve.

Emeka Boris Ama
December 9, 2023
November 23, 2023
Learn how to protect against the most common LLM vulnerabilities

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As users increasingly rely on Large Language Models (LLMs) to accomplish their daily tasks, their concerns about the potential leakage of private data by these models have surged.

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Understanding Large Language Models (LLMs) is essential for modern data professionals.

These powerful AI tools can transform customer service and streamline tasks but come with notable challenges.

From safeguarding against prompt injection risks to ensuring responsiveness and context accuracy, effective LLM monitoring is non-negotiable.

This guide introduces the foundational steps to navigate the complexities of LLMs, fostering informed implementation and oversight.


**💡 Pro tip: Explore our Playbook on LLM Security for valuable insights on LLM vulnerabilities.**

What Is LLM Monitoring?

LLM monitoring, or Large Language Model monitoring, is the process of overseeing and evaluating the performance of these advanced AI models.

Let's break it down to make it more understandable.

Monitoring Large Language Models like EinsteinGPT—a Salesforce AI tool—means keeping an eye on how well they're doing in real-world tasks.

Salesforce, for example, relies on EinsteinGPT to help with a variety of tasks. These include crafting sales pitches, streamlining sales and support tasks, generating useful content for customers and products, building website features, and summarizing important conversations and documents.

When we monitor LLMs, we focus on several key areas:

  • Accuracy: We check if the LLM is giving correct and relevant responses.
  • Response Time: It's important that the LLM replies quickly.
  • Sentiment: We analyze the tone of the LLM's responses to ensure appropriateness.
  • Context Relevancy: The LLM's responses must make sense in the given situation.
  • Perplexity: This sounds complex, but it's about how well the LLM understands different language patterns.
  • Fairness: We watch out for any biases that might slip into the LLM's outputs, which could be unfair to certain groups.

Additionally, LLM observability involves measuring how the LLM is being used, focusing on:

  • Latency: How long it takes for the LLM to respond.
  • Throughput: The number of tasks the LLM can handle in a given time.

While monitoring tends to revolve around the LLM's behavior, observability is more about its operational aspects. It's the difference between asking, "Is the LLM working correctly?" and "How well is the LLM coping with its workload?"

It's common to use 'monitoring' and 'observability' interchangeably, but they do have distinct focuses.

In traditional machine learning, monitoring usually relates to how the data or model might be changing over time, whereas observability deals with how the system is being used. The same distinction applies when we talk about LLMs.

Why Is LLM Monitoring Important?

LLM monitoring is crucial for several reasons, mainly due to the inherent risks and imperfections associated with deploying LLMs in real-world applications.

Firstly, LLMs, despite their sophistication, are not foolproof.

There are specific risks involved:

  • Prompt Injection: Users can manipulate LLMs by inputting deceptive prompts, potentially leading to incorrect or harmful outputs. The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) even ranks prompt injection as a top threat to LLM systems.
  • Hallucinations: This term refers to the LLM generating nonsensical or irrelevant answers, which can be disconcerting or misleading for users.
  • Sensitive Data Disclosure: LLMs that are not sufficiently secured may inadvertently expose personal or confidential information, compromising user privacy.
  • Excessive Agency: Providing LLMs with too much autonomy might result in actions that endanger the security and integrity of sensitive data.

**💡 Read our Practical Guide to OWASP’s Top Risks for LLMs to learn more about security threats to LLM applications.**

Top 10 Risks for LLMs
Source: Top 10 risks associated with LLM
LLM Lifecycle Visualization
Illustration of LLM lifecycle

Because of these issues, diligent monitoring is essential. Here’s why:

  • Preventing Disaster: Consider what might happen if an LLM like EinsteinGPT were to inadvertently release confidential data from Salesforce’s database. Such a breach could be disastrous in sectors like finance or healthcare, where LLMs may advise on financial transactions or medical treatments.
  • Building Trust: Reliability is key to user adoption. If a system routinely produces inaccurate results, users will quickly lose faith. For instance, if a corporate tool produces unreliable sales pitches or document summaries, users could abandon the tool entirely. Regular monitoring helps ensure the quality and reliability of the system's outputs, fostering trust.
  • System Improvement: To refine an LLM and address its shortcomings, you need to know how it performs in practice. Without this insight, you can't effectively tackle issues and improve the system.

These production-related challenges are relatively fresh grounds for AI practitioners, who are still grappling with the potential impacts and risks of LLM technology.

The novelty of these risks makes thorough and consistent monitoring not just advisable, but essential to successfully and safely implementing LLMs in any operational context.

**💡 Read our Guide to LLM Fine Tuning: Best Practices & Tools**

Best practices for LLM monitoring

When it comes to ensuring the safe and effective use of Large Language Models, several best practices can guide your monitoring efforts.

Here's a distilled list of key recommendations:

Implement Data Sanitization

Cleanse data to prevent the incorporation of users' information into the model's training data. This helps protect privacy and reduces the risk of data leaks.

Restrict LLM Actions

Control the actions that the LLM can perform, especially when interacting with other systems. This means validating both inputs to and outputs from the model to prevent unintended operations.

User Confirmations for Critical Actions

For actions that could potentially be risky or impactful, set up a confirmation step where the user must approve the action, particularly if the LLM can interface with external APIs.

Use Security Tools

Consider adopting third-party tools like Lakera Guard that specialize in AI system protection, to detect threats and issue timely warnings.

Secure The Supply Chain

Evaluate the security protocols of data sources and suppliers associated with your LLM. Make sure to understand and agree with their privacy policies and terms of service

Stay Informed

  • Keep abreast of emerging AI security risks.
  • Engage in continuous learning, and
  • Disseminate knowledge within your team or user base by leveraging interactive tools such as Gandalf, a game designed to teach about AI security.

Safeguard Against Accidental Data Sharing

Tools like the Lakera Chrome Extension can alert users when they might inadvertently share personally identifiable information (PII) with LLMs, adding an additional layer of security.

Maintain Human Oversight

Keep humans in the loop for feedback on LLM performance. Human judgment is crucial in catching errors that LLMs may not be programmed to recognize

Use Schedulers and Alert Systems

Implement scheduling tools for regular checks and alert systems to promptly flag issues with the LLM. This ensures continuous monitoring and quick response to any potential issue.

Following these strategies will help address the unique challenges associated with LLMs.

As this field of AI continues to evolve, staying informed and adjusting your practices will be essential for maintaining secure, reliable, and trustworthy LLM systems.

LLM Monitoring vs. Evaluation

The processes of evaluating and monitoring LLMs are essential to their successful deployment and operation. It's vital to comprehend their differences to apply them effectively:

LLM Evaluation

The aim of LLM evaluation is to determine the model's performance before it's put to use. This step is critical to ensure the model is set up for success. The primary tools and methods involved include:

  • Testing Cases: Comparison of the model's outputs against pre-defined correct responses.
  • Prompt Evaluation: Ensuring that the model's prompts lead to desirable outcomes.
  • Benchmarking Results: Using reference data and evaluation datasets, such as those provided by Lakera, to compare the model's outputs.

Evaluation focuses on static metrics such as similarity scores, BLEU, ROUGE, and TER, which assess how closely the generated text matches a reference or expected result.

**Lakera offers datasets such as Gandalf Ignore Instructions and Gandalf Summarization for evaluating the performance of LLMs.**

LLM Monitoring

Meanwhile, LLM monitoring is an ongoing activity that takes place after the model has been deployed. Its purpose is to continuously ensure the LLM performs up to standards in a live environment.

Key facets of LLM monitoring include:

  • Monitoring Prompts: This involves tracking requests, response time, and usage metrics. By doing so, you can fine-tune the effectiveness and efficiency of the model's interactions.
  • Monitoring Responses: Here, you scrutinize the LLM's outputs for accuracy, relevance, and ethical consistency, looking out for issues such as hallucinations or biases.
  • Functional Monitoring: It's about observing the LLM's general performance, ensuring robust functioning by watching over practical operational metrics.

Monitoring employs real-time metrics like accuracy, response time, sentiment analysis, toxicity, context relevancy, and fairness. These are key indicators of the model's real-world performance.

Tools such as Haystack and Lakera AI are utilized to monitor context relevance and detect PII in the LLM's interactions, respectively.

The table below summarizes the distinct differences between LLM evaluation and monitoring:

LLM Evaluation / Monitoring

Choosing the Right LLM Monitoring Metrics

Selecting the right metrics for monitoring your Large Language Model is essential for maintaining its performance, security, and user satisfaction.

Here are key metrics to consider:


  • Factual Accuracy: Ensure that the LLM provides responses that are correct and based on reliable information.
  • Coherence: Monitor for logical and grammatically correct responses.
  • Contextual Relevance: Observe how well the LLM's responses fit the specific context of user prompts.
  • Response Completeness: Verify that the LLM provides comprehensive answers that cover user inquiries adequately.
  • F1 Score: Use this to balance precision and recall, valuable for evaluating models reliant on classification.
  • Perplexity: Apply this to assess the LLM’s language proficiency, reflecting how well it predicts a sequence of words.


  • Relevance Scoring: Create a system to score responses based on criteria like accuracy, coherence, and subject matter pertinence.
  • User Feedback: Implement processes to capture and use user feedback to refine and improve the LLM’s output relevancy.
  • Sentiment Analysis: Evaluate the tone of the LLM's responses to ensure appropriate communication and identify any signs of bias or toxicity.
  • Comparison: Regularly compare the LLM's outputs to established relevance standards to maintain alignment with user needs.


  • Sentiment Scoring: Classify and score the sentiment of responses to maintain a respectful and positive interaction with users.
  • Bias and Toxicity Detection: Actively monitor for discriminatory language or unfair biases in the LLM's outputs.


  • Vulnerability Patching: Monitor the timely application of security patches to the LLM's software and infrastructure.
  • Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS): Utilize IDS to identify and react to security threats, with alerts to notify you of suspicious activities.
  • Access Control Monitoring: Keep track of access attempts and user privileges, ensuring only authorized personnel can use or modify the LLM.

Other Metrics

  • Response Time: Record the time the LLM takes to respond, looking for any delays that could indicate issues.
  • Error Rate: Calculate the rate of incorrect outputs to evaluate the LLM's reliability.
  • Throughput: Measure the number of requests the LLM can handle to ensure it meets demand without compromising quality.
  • Resource Utilization: Assess the LLM’s consumption of system resources to prevent bottlenecks and ensure scalability.
  • Latency: Track the full round-trip time for requests to be processed, aiming for low-latency interactions.
  • Model Health: Regularly review the LLM’s performance metrics to catch and address any decline in its functionality.
  • Scaling Efficiency: Confirm that the LLM can scale up to handle increased loads while maintaining its performance.
  • Drift: Monitor for any drift in the LLM's behavior compared to a baseline, which might indicate evolving model dynamics or data changes.
  • Token Efficiency: Ensure the LLM uses tokens economically while still delivering informative and helpful responses.

By tracking these metrics, you’ll be better positioned to maintain an effective, efficient, and secure LLM system that consistently meets users' needs.

LLM Monitoring Tools

LLM Monitoring Challenges

Addressing the challenges associated with monitoring Large Language Models (LLMs) is key to maximizing their benefits and mitigating risks. Here’s how these challenges can be approached and managed:


  • Efficient Resource Allocation: Use cloud-based services and auto-scaling capabilities to dynamically adjust resources as demand changes.
  • Selective Monitoring: Employ strategies like sampling or focusing on critical aspects of the system instead of broad monitoring to save resources.
  • Leverage AI: Utilize AI-powered tools to assist in the monitoring process, especially to handle large volumes of data.


  • Continuous Bias Detection: Implement ongoing processes for detecting and correcting bias, with regular audits of the LLM’s responses.
  • Diverse Training Data: Ensure the inclusion of diverse and representative datasets to re-train and fine-tune the model regularly.
  • Stakeholder Engagement: Involve a wide range of stakeholders to inform bias reduction strategies and create awareness of potential biases.


  • Establish Clear Benchmarks: Define what constitutes accurate responses using objective benchmarks and comparison with ground truth data where available.
  • Iterative Testing: Test model outputs against a diverse set of cases and scenarios to capture the range of its accuracy.
  • User Feedback: Actively seek and incorporate user feedback to assess and improve the practical accuracy of responses.

False Positives and Negatives

  • Smart Alert Systems: Utilize intelligent alert systems that learn over time and reduce false alerts to avoid alert fatigue.
  • Threshold Tuning: Regularly review and adjust alert thresholds to balance sensitivity and specificity, reducing the number of false reports.

Alert Prioritization

  • Severity Levels: Assign severity levels to alerts to assist in prioritizing and triaging them for effective and timely responses.
  • Risk Assessment: Incorporate risk assessment practices to identify which issues demand immediate attention.

Integration with Legacy Systems

  • Gradual Integration: Take an incremental approach to integrating LLM monitoring with legacy systems, starting with the most critical functions.
  • APIs and Middleware: Use APIs and middleware solutions to facilitate communication between the LLM and older systems without needing extensive redevelopment.
  • Specialized Teams: Employ teams specialized in legacy systems for targeted monitoring adaptations, ensuring smooth integration.

By tackling these challenges head-on with strategic practices and leveraging new technologies, organizations can enhance their ability to monitor LLMs effectively, thus ensuring their applications continue to perform accurately, ethically, and reliably.

LLM Monitoring Tools

In the rapidly evolving space of LLMs, there are several monitoring tools available, each offering unique features to address different aspects of LLM performance and security.

Lakera Guard

Lakera Guard is designed to proactively protect your LLM applications from various security risks, including data leaks and toxic language.

  • Ease of Integration: You can secure your system with a simple line of code.
  • Customizable: Offers the ability to tailor security settings to address specific needs or requirements of your LLM application.
  • Compatibility: It can be integrated with various LLMs, giving you the flexibility to use it across different platforms.
Lakera Guard in action - try it yourself

**Pro tip: Read Introducing Lakera Guard – Bringing Enterprise-Grade Security to LLMs with One Line of Code**


Focuses on preventing prompt injection attacks, using strategies such as heuristics, vector databases, and canary tokens.

Employs a specialized LLM to scrutinize incoming prompts for signs of potential attacks or unauthorized activities.

Laiyer AI

Provides a suite of features such as data sanitization, sentiment analysis, and defense against prompt injections.

Accommodates various token calculators which can help in optimizing costs and performance for diverse LLM platforms.

Compatible with numerous LLM systems, enhancing its ability to monitor and safeguard across a range of applications.


NeMo offers a framework to implement 'guardrails' that guide the behavior of LLMs to ensure safety and policy compliance.

Users can train and fine-tune language models using their own data, adding a level of customization and control.

NeMo helps to set specific boundaries concerning content, context, and code to maintain control over LLM outputs.

While it provides capabilities beyond mere monitoring, it also assists in overseeing the LLM-powered app’s efficacy and adherence to set standards.

To sum up—

These tools collectively represent an array of approaches to monitoring and safeguarding LLMs.

Each tool can be instrumental in optimizing LLM operations to ensure they deliver performance that aligns with user expectations and organizational requirements, while also maintaining safety and compliance.

When selecting LLM monitoring tools, it's essential to consider the specific needs of your use case, the extent of integration required, and the particular risks your LLM application may be exposed to.

LLM Monitoring Guide: TL;DR

Building a robust monitoring system for your Large Language Model (LLM) applications is imperative. Here are some key takeaways and best practices for LLM monitoring guidance:

  • Proactive Monitoring: Continuous, real-time monitoring prevents issues from escalating.
  • Varied Metrics: Track diverse metrics for a full view of your LLM's health.
  • Extra Checks: Implement in-depth checks for precise anomaly detection.
  • Human Oversight: Incorporate human approval for greater reliability in sensitive operations.
  • Refined Prompts: Use carefully designed prompts to enhance response quality.
  • Smart Alerts: Create alert systems that prioritize key issues.
  • Ethical Adherence: Monitor for ethical integrity and regulatory compliance.
  • Frequent Re-Evaluations: Regularly update and refine the LLM with fresh data.
  • Quick Response: Act swiftly on identified issues to limit impact.
  • Iterative Improvement: Use insights from monitoring to continuously improve LLM performance.

By integrating these practices, you ensure that your LLM remains secure, reliable, and effective, thereby safeguarding your applications against potential threats while maintaining high-quality outputs and user satisfaction.

Lakera LLM Security Playbook
Learn how to protect against the most common LLM vulnerabilities

Download this guide to delve into the most common LLM security risks and ways to mitigate them.

Emeka Boris Ama
Machine Learning Engineer
Read LLM Security Playbook

Learn about the most common LLM threats and how to prevent them.

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