Anomaly detection, also known as outlier detection, refers to the identification of patterns in a dataset that do not conform to expected behavior. These non-conforming patterns are termed anomalies or outliers, and they often provide critical and actionable information in various application domains.
How Anomaly Detection Works
Approaches to Anomaly Detection:
Based on the assumption that the normal data follows a particular distribution and outliers deviate from this distribution.
2. Machine Learning-Based:
- Supervised Anomaly Detection: Requires a labeled dataset containing both normal and anomalous samples. Classic algorithms like SVM, Decision Trees, or Neural Networks can be trained for classification.
- Unsupervised Anomaly Detection: Doesn't need labeled data. Algorithms such as k-means clustering, DBSCAN, or autoencoders can be employed.
- Semi-Supervised Anomaly Detection: Uses only normal data for training, assuming that anomalies are very rare and shouldn't significantly impact the model. One-class SVM is an example.
Detect anomalies based on the distance of a data point from its neighbors. If a data point's distance from its neighbors exceeds a threshold, it's considered an anomaly.
Compares the density of a data point with its neighbors. Anomalies are data points in low-density regions.
- Fraud Detection: Spotting unusual patterns in transaction data.
- Network Security: Identifying intrusions or malicious activities.
- Health Monitoring: Detecting disease outbreaks or malfunctioning machinery.
- Quality Assurance: Detecting defects in products.
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